THE PHENOMENON OF “REWUNG TAKI TANA” dalam Budaya Manggarai

THE PHENOMENON OF “REWUNG TAKI TANA”

By: Fransiskus Borgias M.

Today (31 May 2011) I remember one of linguistic expressions in Manggarain Language. This linguistic expression is Rewung taki tana. It is not so easy actually to translate it into English. But let me try: Rewung means cloud; taki tana means touch until to the ground. So literaly it means the cloud that touches until to the ground. This expression is of course closely related to the natural phenomenon of Manggarai, because Manggarai in its mountain areas are full of cloudy day, especially during June until September. But this natural-linguistic expression was used in Poem, in traditional songs. I heard it for the first time in my childhood. This expression was used by a certain Manggarain traditional singer, Makarius Arus from Rentung (Maras, near Cancar) in his song with the title Rewung taki tana. It is interesting that Makarius Arus is actually a blind man; as such he cannot see the beauty of natural, or mountains, or sun, or tress. He cannot enjoy the beauty and the wonder of nature. But he uses the beauty of natural phenomenon in his songs. He uses this beauty of nature to express the cosmic melancholy of human mind. This is one of the mistery of Makarius; he is actually blind but he can “see”; it is something paradoxical. This mystery makes me confused since my childhood, because the song of Makarius was popular in the 70s, with his unique guitar style. Maybe that is the Manggarain guitar style.

Now I go back to the natural phenomenon of Rewung taki tana. It usually happens during the dry season in June to August or September, every year. When this natural phenomenon comes, our sight was very limited; maybe not more than three meters. In my childhood, this period was considered very dangerous because it is said and even believed that at that time empo degong make their activities. Who are they? According to the story they are the head hunters. Usually they are escorted by ata Karong, the guide. Usually ata karong is a local people. So According to my mother this rewung taki tana period was a critical and dangerous time; thus came the prohibitation: neka lako mane rantang cumang pake, toe pake bon pake mpareng. Usually my mom prohibited us to go outside of house in this time. But according to me precisely this is the good opportunity for the theft to take whatever they want from others, because every people are in their own houses. My other analysis is that this old story of Empo Degong was a story of the period of slave hunters in the past history of Manggarai. In that period the slave traders usually catch their victims in this kind of time. From the other source I know that in the time of war, rewung taki tana was used as a strategy and camouflage. In the war between Todo against Cibal in Benteng Weol, the panglima of Todo disguised himself as a lady of Todo and coming or approaching benteng Weol during the time of rewung taki tana. Yes rewung Golo Nawang is very wellknown and also Rewung in sawah Cancar.

At the beginning of this month I have also made a notes on Rewung Taki Tana in Indonesian language. I include also this note here. Rewung taki tana adalah gejala alam pada bulan Juni sampai September di daerah pegunungan di Manggarai. Pada bulan-bulan itu pada sore hari, awan akan datang (rewung) menyelimuti gunung, lembah, kampung, dan bahkan rumah-rumah, sampai ke tanah (taki tana). Akibat peristiwa alam ini, maka daya jangkau pandangan mata kita menjadi sangat terbatas. Kita tidak dapat melihat jauh, tidak dapat menembus awan-awan tebal. Biasanya peristiwa rewung taki tana itu dipakai oleh para pencuri untuk melakukan aksinya, mencuri dan menjarah hasil bumi di kebun orang lain; bahkan termasuk mencuri ternak peliharaan. Ada mitos menakutkan: ada empo degong, ata karong; anak-anak tidak boleh main jauh dari rumah; bahkan tidak boleh keluar rumah sama sekali. Fenomena rewung taki tana ini dulu juga dikaitkan dengan salah satu periode tragis dalam sejarah Manggarai, yaitu penculikan manusia dalam rangka perdagangan budak (wendo ata te taki mendi laing).

Dalam bukunya, Historiografi Manggarai, Dami N.Toda, melukiskan salah satu periode perang Cibal melawan Todo; Cibal saat itu bertahan di benteng Weol di dekat Cancar; mereka sulit sekali diserang dan ditaklukkan. Akhirnya Todo melakukan tipu muslihat; dengan memakai rewung taki tana golo nawang panglima perang Todo menyamar sebagai perempuan cantik. Benteng Weol pun lalu dibuka karena yang datang adalah perempuan; ternyata itu hanya samaran. Weol dihancurkan dari dalam oleh Todo. Kira-kira mirip dengan tragedi Troya.

Beberapa waktu lalu ada orang di Face Book (saya lupa namanya) memberitakan wafatnya Bapa Makarius Arus. Ia seorang penyanyi buta dan gitaris dari Rentung or Maras. Ialah yang dalam salah satu lagunya mempopulerkan fenomena alam rewung taki tana ini. Dan ini sangat menarik, karena walau ia buta toh ia nyanyi dengan syair lagu yang mengangkat fenomena alam, rewung taki tana. Alam yang melankolik, melankolik kosmik. Sampai saat ini saya tetap masih bertanya, bagaimana hal ini mungkin terjadi? Mungkin Makarius itu seperti Fransiskus dari Asisi, yang buta tetapi menulis sebuah puisi kosmik yang indah dengan judul Gita Sang Surya itu. Tetapi dalam hal Fransiskus, ia buta belakangan; jadi, ia pernah bisa melihat. Itu sebabnya Fransiskus bisa memuja alam dalam puisinya, walau ia menulis puisi itu ketika sudah tidak bisa lagimelihat. Apakah Makarius juga seperti itu atau begitu? Walahualam. Hal ini harus ditanyakan kepada keluarganya sendiri.

Yogyakarta, Lempong Lor 25 Juli 2011

Artikel ini ditulis oleh Bapak Fransiskus Borgios M.

Advertisements

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

w

Connecting to %s